How the American South is paying the price for Europe’s ‘green’ energy

Photographs by Will Lanzoni, CNN
Video by Matthew Gannon, Demetrius Pipkin & Nick Scott, CNN


Published July 9, 2021

Andrea Macklin by no means turns off his TV. It’s the solely strategy to drown out the noise from the wooden mill bordering his yard, the jackhammer sound of the plant piercing his partitions and home windows. The 18-wheelers carrying logs rumble by lower than 100 toes from his home, all day and night time, shaking it as if an earthquake has taken over this tranquil nook of North Carolina. He’s been carrying masks since lengthy earlier than the coronavirus pandemic, simply to maintain the mud out of his lungs.

Some nights, he solely sleeps for two or three hours. Breathing is a chore.

“I haven’t had proper rest since they’ve been here,” he stated.

That was eight years in the past, when the world’s largest biomass producer, Enviva, opened its second North Carolina facility simply west of Macklin’s property in Garysburg. The operation takes principally hardwood timber and spits out biomass, or wooden pellets, a extremely processed and compressed wooden product burned to generate energy. Enviva is certainly one of almost a dozen comparable corporations benefiting from a sustainability dedication made 4,000 miles away, greater than a decade in the past.

‘It’s like we don’t matter’: Green energy loophole has devastating affect on group

In 2009, the European Union (EU) pledged to curb greenhouse gasoline emissions, urging its member states to shift from fossil fuels to renewables. In its Renewable Energy Directive (RED), the EU labeled biomass as a renewable energy supply — on par with wind and solar energy. As a end result, the directive prompted state governments to incentivize energy suppliers to burn biomass as an alternative of coal — and drove up demand for wooden.

So a lot in order that the American South emerged as Europe’s main supply of biomass imports.

Earlier this 12 months, the EU was celebrated in headlines throughout the world when renewable energy surpassed the use of fossil fuels on the continent for the first time in historical past.

But scientists and consultants say it’s too early to rejoice, arguing that counting on biomass for energy has a punishing affect not solely on the atmosphere, but in addition on marginalized communities — perpetuating a long time of environmental racism in predominantly Black communities like Northampton County, the place Macklin and his household have lived for generations.

Macklin’s aged aunt lives proper behind him, a tall Magnolia tree offers shade to each their properties. His mom’s home is simply down the avenue. They used to have massive household cookouts in his backyard whereas the children performed on the garden, however they haven’t completed that in years. Between the noise and the sawdust from the plant, his house is now not a protected place to collect.

But it’s the air pollution that worries him most.

“You don’t know what’s coming out of the smokestack,” stated Macklin. “That’s my main concern.”

To say chopping down timber and burning them for energy is a renewable energy supply feels counterintuitive and, in actuality, it is.

Burning wooden is much less environment friendly than burning coal and releases way more carbon into the ambiance, in line with virtually 800 scientists who wrote a 2018 letter to the European parliament, pushing members to amend the present directive “to avoid expansive harm to the world’s forests and the acceleration of climate change.” President Joe Biden and different world leaders obtained a similar letter from tons of of local weather scientists earlier this 12 months.

The EU directive that inspired the pivot to biomass additionally left a loophole — it didn’t forestall the leveling of rooted timber for wooden pellet manufacturing.

“I can’t think of anything that harms nature more than cutting down trees and burning them,” stated William Moomaw, professor emeritus of worldwide environmental coverage at Tufts University.

Yet by burning wooden, European energy crops can cut back their carbon footprint — no less than on paper.


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The American Southeast is the largest wood-producing area in the world.

In 1996, scientists at the United Nations devised a way to measure world carbon emissions. To simplify the course of and keep away from double counting, they steered emissions from burning biomass ought to be calculated the place the timber are minimize down, not the place the wooden pellets are burned.

The EU adopted this system in its Renewable Energy Directive, permitting energy corporations to burn biomass produced in the US with out having to report the emissions.

The accounting methodology — which was by no means supposed to assign nationwide accountability for carbon emissions, in line with local weather consultants — has created plenty of dialogue and disagreement amongst advocates, scientists and policymakers. But in the end it is not the accounting of carbon that is the drawback, it’s the emissions.

“It doesn’t change the physical reality,” stated Tim Searchinger, senior analysis scholar at Princeton University. “A law designed to reduce emissions that in reality encourages an increase in emissions … has to be flawed,” he stated, referring to Europe’s directive.


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Logs are strapped onto a truck at a clear-cut website in Northampton County, North Carolina.

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The blade of a felling noticed used to chop down timber.

Ultimately, Europe is not lowering emissions by burning American timber — it’s simply outsourcing them to the United States.

“The idea was to curb our addiction to fossil fuels,” stated Bas Eickhout, Dutch politician and member of the European Parliament. Biomass was a gorgeous choice for EU international locations at the time, he defined, as a result of it was less expensive than photo voltaic or wind energy and may very well be “mixed in” when burning coal.

However, European decision-makers didn’t absolutely think about the repercussions of importing biomass, Eickhout stated, including they “were too naïve.”

“The production of biomass has become an industrial process which means something has gone fundamentally wrong,” he stated. “The professionalization of the biomass industry is a problem that needs attention.”

The directive led to troubling penalties throughout the Atlantic. By failing to limit biomass to the byproduct from manufacturing paper, furnishings or lumber, Europe created a robust incentive to chop down complete timber and switch them into wooden pellets.

Encouraged by government subsidies, European energy crops started importing biomass from the largest wooden producing area in the world: the American Southeast.

North Carolina has been “ground zero” for the wooden pellet business, stated Danna Smith, co-founder and govt director of the environmental advocacy group Dogwood Alliance. One hundred and sixty-four acres of the state’s forests are minimize down by the biomass business every single day, in line with an evaluation by Key-Log Economics.


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Enviva owns 4 wooden pellet crops in North Carolina, together with this one in Northampton County.

US-based Enviva, which owns 4 wooden pellet crops in North Carolina, says their product is combating local weather change.

“When sourced responsibly wood-based biomass is recognized by the leading international organizations and scientists as climate friendly, renewable and carbon-neutral energy source,” Enviva wrote in an announcement, including that they require the forests they supply from ”will regenerate, both naturally or by planting.”

Yet, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change — the UN physique that got here up with the carbon accounting methodology — states its guidelines “do not automatically consider or assume biomass used for energy as ‘carbon neutral,’ even in cases where the biomass is thought to be produced sustainably.”


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Trees are harvested at a logging operation in Northampton County.

Biomass is renewable only in the sense that trees can grow back, said Grant Domke, who leads a team researching and reporting on carbon stocks and changes on forest land at the US Forest Service. “But that is different than it being carbon-neutral.” When it comes to Europe reducing carbon emissions by burning American biomass, “the math doesn’t add up.”

Still, the biomass industry is not showing any signs of slowing down. Drax, a British company that operates the largest UK power plant, has acquired several wood pellet plants in the American South and is developing others. Enviva, too, is building new facilities and is expanding existing ones — including the plant in Northampton County, North Carolina, where Macklin and his family live.

It’s here where once grand country homes stand dilapidated, overrun with weeds and abandoned in a jigsaw puzzle of cotton, grain and sprawling pine plantations. Strip malls, restaurant chains and expansive parking lots comprise the commercial landscape. Gas stations line the roads but grocery stores are few and far between. The temperature was already scorching in May — residents kept their curtains drawn and many stayed inside, the hum of air conditioning providing the only sign of life.

For the last decade, the population in Northampton County has been declining and, despite a clear need for health care, there was only one primary care physician serving the entire county, with a population of just under 20,000, in 2018.


biomass maps fullwidth

Sources: US Census 2019 5-year American Community Survey, North Carolina Dept. of Environmental Quality

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Sources: US Census 2019 5-year American Community Survey, North Carolina Dept. of Environmental Quality

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Sources: US Census 2019 5-year American Community Survey, North Carolina Dept. of Environmental Quality

That same year, a health assessment by the county well being division requested residents if they’d ever been identified with sure illnesses. The report confirmed greater than 60% of the members stated they’d hypertension, greater than half stated they have been obese and over 20% stated they suffered from melancholy or diabetes. Nearly 11% of residents stated they’d coronary heart illness.

The newest information from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed that a couple of in 10 adults in Northampton had bronchial asthma in 2018. Asthma hospitalizations in the county, nonetheless, are decrease than in the state as a complete, in line with the NC Department of Environmental Quality.

Macklin, a father of two and lifelong Northampton resident, is residing these statistics. Two years in the past, the 44-year-old’s coronary heart situation worsened, requiring him to stop his job at a meat packaging plant and leaving him with a incapacity, like greater than 16% of county residents beneath 65.


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Andrea Macklin wipes mud off of his automotive. He says he has to clean his automotive incessantly due to the mud coming from the Enviva plant behind his home.

Macklin’s spouse and 21-year-old son each undergo from bronchial asthma, a situation that Macklin stated is exacerbated by the air pollution and mud coming from Enviva’s plant behind his home. Since the plant began working, he stated, his spouse and son can’t spend greater than 5 minutes exterior with out coughing.

Before Enviva opened its Northampton mill, the 551 sq. miles that make up the county have been already house to three major air pollution sources — services required to a request a allow beneath Title V of the Clean Air Act for emitting massive quantities of air pollution. Another three such services are positioned inside two miles of the Northampton border in neighboring Halifax County.

In 2013, Enviva turned the fourth Title V allow holder in Northampton County, emitting tons of harmful high quality particles, or PM2.5, carbon monoxide and quite a few what the Environmental Protection Agency calls “Hazardous Air Pollutants” — together with formaldehyde and methanol.


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An American flag flies in Northampton County.

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Tire tracks are seen at a clearcut logging operation in Northampton County.

“All of our plants operate in compliance with their permits and federal and state prescribed emission legal standards under the permits, presenting no risk or issue to public health or environment,” Enviva stated in an announcement, including {that a} state air high quality monitor 5 miles from its facility discovered that PM2.5 ranges didn’t “present a health risk” to county residents.

The EPA did not take action at the time but announced last month it is taking another look at the federal requirements for PM2.5 saying “scientific evidence and technical information indicate that the current standards may not be adequate to protect public health and welfare, as required by the Clean Air Act.”

Exposure to year-round PM2.5 air pollution — particles no less than 20 occasions thinner than a strand of human hair — has been linked to bronchial asthma and slowed lung perform in youngsters and elevated threat of most cancers, coronary heart assaults, strokes and dying from heart problems, in line with the EPA. The well being issues in Macklin’s group haven’t been straight linked to the Title V services in the county.

The inhabitants of Northampton — which, in line with CNN’s evaluation, has certainly one of the highest numbers of main air polluters per capita in the state — is predominantly Black, underscoring long-standing issues over environmental racism.

The North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, the company tasked with granting air high quality permits in the state, declined to remark for this story.


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Belinda Joyner lives in Northampton County. The county’s inhabitants is predominantly Black.

“We’ve been disrespected all our lives,” stated resident Belinda Joyner, 68, who has been combating environmental racism in her group for a long time, “and we’re still being disrespected.”

PM2.5 polluters in the United States “disproportionately and systemically affect people of color,” in line with a recent study that famous the sort of publicity is accountable for as much as 200,000 extra deaths in the United States yearly.

When there is “degradation of the air and the land, we simultaneously see degradation of the community,” stated Smith, of the Dogwood Alliance.

All however certainly one of Enviva’s 9 working crops in the nation are positioned in communities which have larger share of Black residents than their states as a complete, in line with a CNN evaluation of census tract information from the American Community Survey. The solely exception was the firm’s plant in southeast Georgia.

In addition, all of Enviva’s crops are in census tracts which have decrease median family incomes than their states, and eight of the 9 — all besides the one in southern Virginia — are in tracts with larger poverty charges than their states as a complete.

To some, like Macklin, Enviva’s presence has hardly benefitted the group.

“They just feel like they come in and do what they want to do,” stated Macklin, including later, “All the noise and the dust and stuff, it was never like that, it’s always been quiet around here … that plant is on 24 hours a day. It don’t stop. Seven days a week.”

Kathy Claiborne, 59, who lives on the different aspect of the Enviva plant in Northampton, anticipates the sleepless nights by attempting to take a nap when she will get house from work. The noise is worst round 2 a.m., she stated.

“I never really thought about noise as being a health hazard until I talked to the communities that live next to the Enviva facilities and they say they can’t sleep at night,” stated Smith. “Not being able to sleep is depriving people of one of the most important foundations of human health.”


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Enviva’s Northampton plant glows towards the night time sky. Nearby residents say noise from the plant is the worst in a single day.

In its response to CNN, Enviva stated the firm takes “environmental justice concerns raised with respect to our operations very seriously. And, we work closely in our communities and community leaders to ensure our operations bring both positive economic and environmental impact.” The firm additionally stated it had not obtained noise complaints aside from “generic complaints” at a current listening to raised by “the same activists we’ve heard from before.”

Enviva pointed to an environmental justice evaluation for its operations in Northampton completed by the North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, claiming the report ensures “there is no negative impact on disadvantaged or minority communities from out plants or operations.”

However, the 2019 Environmental Justice Impact Statement merely describes the demographics round the plant — noting excessive incapacity and poverty charges in a majority Black inhabitants — it doesn’t give suggestions or attain conclusions about the affect the business would have on the group.

Still, in June, the county Chamber of Commerce awarded Enviva with the “Corporate Business of the Year” award — noting the firm “continuously supported, donated, and invested their time and talents into local organizations and causes.”


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Earl and Kathy Claiborne dwell subsequent to the Enviva plant in Northampton County.

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Kathy says the noise from the plant is the worst round 2 a.m.

Though the relationship between native officers and Enviva is “good now,” inviting them in had drawbacks, stated Franklin Williams, the county’s financial growth director. The firm desires to be “good partners,” he stated, applauding its outreach efforts and noting that Enviva has offered college provides to native colleges and helped sponsor meals banks in the group throughout the pandemic.

Joyner and the Claibornes recalled a Christmas when Enviva despatched some residents hams — however the outreach felt virtually insulting.

“The next thing you know that plant is up and running and we’re getting a ham,” stated Claiborne’s husband, Earl. “It was a good gesture but you know you’re getting pulled into something.”

To Joyner, college provides and vacation meals do little to counter the impacts Enviva’s operation has had on the folks of Northampton. This is the place her mom purchased the land that her home sits on — it’s the place she raised her two daughters.

“All I want to do is take care of it,” she stated. “I don’t have the privilege to get up and move. Where am I going? This is home.”

Just throughout the border in Virginia — lower than an hour from Joyner’s home — sits a uncommon, protected historical wetland forest.

“We’re looking at trees around us that are over a thousand years old,” stated Smith, as she maneuvered her kayak by the Cypress timber, declaring completely different species and figuring out birds whose habitats are threatened by industrial logging. It’s an “incredible jewel of an ecosystem,” she stated.

It’s a humbling place, in stark distinction with the scorching and dusty clear-cuts — land the place timber have been leveled and never changed — and rows of newly planted pine timber that make up Macklin and Joyner’s neighborhood.

Cypress timber, some with trunks wider than a sedan, stand tall between lily pads and beaver dams. In the winter, the water rises and hides these huge, cracked and sometimes hole tree trunks which might be seen in the hotter months. Noise from the close by freeway is drowned out by an orchestra of birds. Fish leap out of the water as if in an animated movie. It’s peaceable, inexperienced and surprisingly cool on an in any other case sweltering summer season day.

The 535-acre forest — surrounded by tons of of 1000’s of acres of pine plantations and clear-cuts — is a valuable needle in a haystack.


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Danna Smith is the co-founder and govt director of environmental advocacy group Dogwood Alliance.

“The forestry industry and the wood pellet industry says that trees are renewable,” stated Smith, however “we aren’t renewing thousand-year-old ecosystems. They’re renewing forests for commercial production. So you’ll see trees on the landscape that are maybe, you know, 30 years old. That’s not an ecosystem — that’s a fiber farm.”

As lengthy as timber are replanted, Enviva and supporters of the biomass business argue, burning them might be thought of renewable energy. But the actuality is not so easy.

When timber are minimize down and burned, all the carbon they saved is instantly emitted into the air, Moomaw, the professor at Tufts University, defined. For a brand new tree to develop and re-absorb the similar quantity of carbon takes a long time — making the worldwide makes an attempt at going carbon impartial on deadline, like the EU desires to by 2050, a frightening aim.

At finest, planting a seedling for each downed tree retains carbon emissions impartial over time — it’s not eradicating any extra carbon out of the ambiance, Moomaw burdened.

“It’s preventing us from getting worse, but it’s not making it better, he stated.


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A Cypress tree rises out of the water in a wetland forest in Courtland, Virginia.

Or, as Smith put it ominously, “we’re losing decades of time every time forests are clear cut — time we don’t have.”

Traveling again to Northampton from the protected Cypress wetlands, Smith factors out clear cuts alongside the approach. A 50-acre plot of decades-old timber cleared in the fall nonetheless bore the odor of pine — serving a jarring picture lower than an hour from the lush wetland forest to the east.

Enviva obtained 15% of these as soon as residing, standing timber — deemed “lower-value wood” by the biomass business as a result of it doesn’t meet the specs for lumber.

“This is our nation’s sacrifice zone for unsustainable consumption of wood products and products we don’t need,” Smith stated. “These wood pellets aren’t even producing electricity here … this is completely unnecessary.”

Thomas Garner has been logging — chopping down timber and loading them onto vehicles — since he was 16 years previous. He remembers pulling logs onto his again and loading the vehicles by hand. Big machines — aptly referred to as log loaders — have made his work a lot simpler, however even at 83 he drives absolutely stocked 18-wheelers to wooden and paper mills throughout Northampton County and past.

Enviva has been good for his enterprise as an impartial contractor, he stated, a sentiment echoed by others who spoke to CNN.

But the jobs come at a hefty price for Northampton County.

Local officers keen to tug Northampton out of its Tier One standing — a designation by the state for its 40 lowest rating counties by way of financial well-being — lured corporations, together with Enviva, to the space with monetary incentives. But these incentives really set Northampton again, stated Williams, the present Director of Economic Development in the county.


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Thomas Garner has been logging since he was 16 years previous and says Enviva has been good for his enterprise.

In Enviva’s case, amongst the circumstances the firm agreed to was the creation of 62 full-time jobs, Williams stated, including that in return, Northampton County would pay the firm $360,556.70 every year, along with 120 acres of land and upwards half one million {dollars} towards water, sewer and gasoline traces amongst different assist.

But as an alternative of boosting the financial system out of the lowest tier, the five-year settlement was amongst the drivers of upper property taxes in the group.

“I think they over-incentivized their efforts to get these businesses here and it caused the tax rate to go up in order to meet the budget,” stated Williams.

Between 2011 and 2019, the property tax price in Northampton County elevated almost 6%. The county has had the third highest property tax price in the state for the previous 5 years.

It’s a burden many residents can’t shoulder.


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Cut logs sit on a truck in Northampton County.

Northampton has certainly one of the highest unemployment charges in the state — which nearly doubled throughout the Covid-19 pandemic — and almost 22% of its residents reside in poverty.

“If the wood products industry and biomass were a way of growing strong rural economies in the southeastern region, these rural communities should be some of the wealthiest on the planet,” stated Smith. “We are in the world’s largest wood producing region. But you don’t see any evidence in these rural communities of thriving rural economies. The opposite is actually true.”

Enviva at present employs 98 folks at their Northampton facility and pay roughly 37% greater than the common wage in the county, the firm advised CNN in an announcement, including that they try to rent domestically if employees have the proper {qualifications}.

The wage is certainly one of the causes that even Macklin utilized for jobs at Enviva, most lately about two years in the past. He stated he labored in wooden mills earlier than and had hoped for a job near house, however he by no means heard again from the firm. Macklin, who lately had main coronary heart surgical procedure, stated he received’t apply once more out of concern for his well being.

“I wouldn’t want to be around all that dust,” Macklin stated. “I don’t want to be inhaling it.”

On a scorching Wednesday morning at the finish of May, Joyner and fellow group activist Richie Harding, drove an hour and a half to Raleigh to protest towards the wooden pellet business and ship a petition to the governor’s workplace, asking him to maintain future biomass operations out of North Carolina.

At a information convention, Joyner burdened that her group was a “dumping ground” for industries that no one else desires to dwell close to.

Harding, one other lifelong Northampton County resident, referred to as out what he perceives to be environmental racism focusing on his hometown: “If Black lives matter, why is my community the desired location for a facility that would not only shorten my life, but the lives of my children?”

Despite wide-ranging arguments towards biomass, Enviva has obtained greater than $7 million in subsidies since 2013 from federal, state and native businesses to provide wooden pellets for export to Europe.

Throughout the South, the biomass business continues to develop. Twelve new crops throughout six states, together with two proposed Enviva services in Alabama and Mississippi, have requested permits, in line with information from the Southern Environmental Law Center. Existing crops, like the Enviva operation in Northampton, are increasing.


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A log loader strikes freshly minimize timber in Northampton County.

The EU, which goals to be climate-neutral by 2050, is set to revise its Renewable Energy Directive this summer season and is anticipated to replace sustainability standards for biomass. Critics hope they may limit biomass imports from abroad, exclude complete, residing timber as “waste product” and correctly account for carbon emissions from chopping and burning wooden.

But a draft doc that surfaced this previous spring doesn’t recommend substantial adjustments are coming for Europe’s directive.

None of the choices supplied will deal with the two most important issues with biomass: burning wooden for energy is worse than burning coal, and chopping down timber “profoundly damages ecosystems and biodiversity,” Mary Booth, scientist and director at the Partnership for Policy Integrity, wrote in a critique of the draft doc.

The European Commission declined to touch upon the draft, however confirmed the revised directive might be printed on July 14.

In the US, federal policymakers haven’t but decided the destiny of wooden pellets.


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Timber scraps cowl the floor of a clear-cut website in Northampton County.

“Biomass is categorically incompatible with our climate, justice and health goals,” Democratic Sen. Ed Markey of Massachusetts, who efficiently opposed the allowing of a biomass energy plant in his state, stated in an announcement to CNN. Neither the planet nor the United States, he stated, can “afford to make the same … mistake that allowed the European Union to put biomass on the exact same level as truly renewable energy sources like wind and solar.”

Under former President Donald Trump, the Environmental Protection Agency deliberate to comply with in Europe’s footsteps and classify biomass as a carbon-neutral energy supply, however that by no means occurred. Despite the Biden administration’s dedication to combat world warming, activists fear they received’t acknowledge the menace of biomass and industrial logging.

“It’s almost like in the US, all we see of value in a forest is a dollar bill,” Smith stated. “We don’t recognize the costs of this destruction.”

Back in Northampton, Macklin feels simply as defeated.

“Us being in a poor area… I mean, what can we do?” he stated. “A company like that with money… we don’t got money to fight against it and it seems like we don’t got no one fighting for us. Not the state, no one.”

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